BiographieFils d'Anne-René Gourlay et de Jacques Duchesne, un capitaine terre-neuvas disparu au large de Terre-Neuve en 1849, Jean-Baptiste Duchesne est par ailleurs le frère aîné de Louis Duchesne, élevé dans une famille de marins catholiques.
Tôt, il participe aux missions maristes de la Société de l'Océanie du commandant Marceau, se rendant en Océanie dès 1845 sur L'Arche d’Alliance, béni le 30 août 1845 à Nantes. Le 15 novembre, il appareille sous le commandement de Marceau. Le 7 avril, il est à Valparaiso, puis rejoint les îles Marquises, Tahiti où il apprend la mort de Monseigneur Epalle le 16 décembre 1845, Wallis où il visite les îles avec Mgr Bataillon et la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
En Oregon, il fait naufrage en juillet 1849 avec le navire Étoile du matin, sur la barre de la Columbia River, non loin de Sand Island.
Cape Disapointment, dans les bouches de la Columbia River.
Les rescapés remontent la Columbia River jusqu'à Portland, remorqués par un navire de la Hudson bay Company.
Là, à Portland, le navire est vendu pour épave à Francis Pettygrove et Asa L. Lovejoy.
John Mac Loughlin
Là, à Oregon City, il crée le comptoir de l'Océanie avec les rescapés du navire, accueillis par leur voisin le plus proche, le célèbre docteur John Mc Loughlin, considéré aujourd'hui comme le père de l'Oregon, catholique et francophone sur une terre protestante et anglophone.
Rentrant en Europe, Duchesne passe par San Francisco enflammé par la fièvre de l'or, causant le départ en Californie de son beau-frère Louis Miniac avec l'aventurière Fanny Loviot à bord de L'Indépendance de la Loterie des lingots d'or.
Par la suite, marié à la lorientaise Léonie Launay, le capitaine au long-cours devient un armateur vivant dans l'aisance, dont la disparition de deux navires passant le cap Horn signe la déroute financière.
Il est enterré dans le cimetière de Lorette de Saint-Servan, à Saint-Malo, aux côtés de la mère de Louis Duchesne.
Un golf, Peninsula Golf Course, à Long Beach dans l'État de Washington a baptisé l'un de ses neuf parcours du nom de « Morning star », en hommage aux naufragés de la proche rivière Columbia.
- Archives familiales des familles Colas et Miniac.
- Rôle de désarmement de l'Étoile du matin, archives départementales de Seine-Maritime, Rouen.
- Eugène Alcan, Les Cannibales et leur temps, souvenirs de la campagne de l'Océanie, Delhomme et Briguet, Paris, 1887. Relatif à la campagne de 1845.
- Eugène Alcan, La Légende des âmes, souvenirs de quelques conférences de Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, deux volumes.
- Auguste Marceau, Souvenirs du commandant Marceau, 1888.
- Auguste Marceau, René Haton librairie, 1891.
- Joseph Thérol, Martyrs des archipels, éditions Saint-Germain, 1948.
- Le Cimetière du Pacifique, récit maritime sur la Columbia river, Binfort and Mort, 1964.
- Olivier Le Dour et Grégoire Le Clech, Les Bretons et la Ruée vers l'or de Californie, Les portes du large, 2006. (notice biographique)
- Jean-François Miniac, Les Mystères de la Manche, de Borée, 2009 (un chapitre sur le récit de l'Etoile du matin).
* "John Mix Stanley (January 17, 1814 – April 10, 1872) was an artist-explorer, an American painter of landscapes, and Native American portraits and tribal life. Born in the Finger Lakes region of New York, he started painting signs and portraits as a young man, but in 1842 traveled to the American West to paint Native American life. In 1846 he exhibited a gallery of 85 of his paintings in Cincinnati and Louisville. During the Mexican-American War, he joined Colonel Stephen Watts Kearney's expedition to California and painted accounts of the campaign, as well as aspects of the Oregon Territory.
Stanley continued to travel and paint in the West, and mounted a major exhibit of more than 150 works at the Smithsonian Institution in 1852. Although he had some Congressional interest in purchasing the collection, he was unsuccessful in completing a sale, and never recovered his expenses for a decade of intensive work and travel. In 1854 he exhibited a 42-scene panorama of western scenes in Washington, DC: Baltimore, New York and London, but it has been lost. More than 200 of his paintings, maps and other work being held at the Smithsonian were lost in an 1865 fire. The irreparable loss of most of his works caused the eclipse of Stanley's reputation for some time in American art history, but today his few surviving works are held by national and numerous regional museums." in Wikipédia.
"The Amon Carter Museum of American Art is located in Fort Worth, Texas. It was established by Amon G. Carter to house his collection of paintings and sculpture by Frederic Remington and Charles M. Russell. Carter’s will provided a museum in Fort Worth devoted to American art. His daughter, Ruth Carter Stevenson, carried out his wishes and the museum opened to the public in January 1961.
When the museum opened in the aforementioned year, its first director, Mitchell A. Wilder, sought a broader vision for its collection. Wilder believed that the grand story of American art could be interpreted as the history of many artists at different times working on “successive frontiers” in the great pageant of American history. As a result of this vision, the museum's collections began to expand in many fascinating ways, from the first landscape painters of the 1830s to modern artists of the twentieth century.
Today, the collection includes masterworks by such artists as Alexander Calder, Thomas Cole, Stuart Davis, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, Georgia O'Keeffe, John Singer Sargent, Charles Demuth, Martin Johnson Heade and Alfred Stieglitz. The museum also possesses one of the premier collections of American photography in the nation, comprising more than 30,000 exhibition prints by some 400 photographers. The photography collection also includes the work and archives of several notable American photographers, including Laura Gilpin, Eliot Porter, and Karl Struss. The museum continues to collect American art and produce related programs, publications, and exhibitions. Philip Johnson, the museum’s original architect, designed and completed the building’s most recent expansion in 2001." in Wikipédia.
* Asa Lovejoy
"Lovejoy first traveled to the Oregon Country in 1842 over the Oregon Trail. He was part of a wagon train led by Elijah White that arrived at the Whitman Mission in what is now eastern Washington State. During this trip he was briefly held captive with another immigrant by Native Americans before arriving at the Whitman's. At the mission, Lovejoy agreed to join Marcus Whitman on a trip to return east during the winter. Lovejoy returned to Oregon in 1843, as part of the Great Migration that helped open up the Oregon Trail to large migrations, settling in the Willamette Valley. Upon returning to the region, Lovejoy set up a law practice in Oregon City, the seat of government during the Provisional Government period.
In 1843, Lovejoy and traveling companion William Overton split a claim to a 640 acres (2.6 km2) tract along the Willamette River. This site would later become part of downtown Portland. Overton held the land, as Lovejoy settled elsewhere. Overton soon sold his share to Francis Pettygrove and Lovejoy and Pettygrove held their famous coin toss in 1845 to decide the name of the city which was being platted on the claim. Each desired to name the area after his hometown. Pettygrove, from Portland, Maine, won the toss, and the town site became known as Portland, Oregon. The two would plat sixteen blocks of the town that year; Lovejoy later sold his stake to Benjamin Stark in 1845. Also in 1845, Lovejoy married Elizabeth McGary. They would have five children: William, Amos, Ada, Elizabeth, and Nellie. In 1846, he was the last administrator of the Ewing Young estate, whose death had precipitated the formation of the Provisional Government of Oregon.
In 1844, Asa Lovejoy was elected to the Provisional Legislature of Oregon to represent Clackamas District. Lovejoy ran for the newly created office of governor that replaced the Executive Committee in 1845 with the adoption of the Second Organic Laws of Oregon. George Abernethy won the election after he received the most votes with 228, followed by Osbourne Russell with 130, William J. Bailey with 75, and finally Lovejoy with 71 votes. Though he lost the election for governor, he was elected as mayor of Oregon City that year.
Lovejoy returned to the legislature in 1846 and served as Speaker of the body. In 1847, Lovejoy ran against Abernethy for governor a second time. Lovejoy lost the election 536 to 520. From 1847 to 1848, he served as adjunct general during the Cayuse War, the war resulting from the Whitman Massacre.
Lovejoy was elected in 1848 to what would be the final session of the Provisional Legislature, which was held in late 1848 into early 1849. However, Lovejoy now representing Vancouver District north of the Columbia River resigned before the session started. In September 1848, he traveled with a group to California during the California Gold Rush, but returned aboard the brig Undine in January 1849 after six weeks in California. During the same session he resigned from, he was selected by the Provisional Legislature as Supreme Judge of the government on February 16, 1849, but never served and the Provisional government was dissolved the following month with the arrival of the territorial government.
Once the government of the Oregon Territory arrived in March 1849, a new legislature with two chambers was established. Lovejoy was elected to the first session of this legislature, first serving in the lower chamber Oregon House of Representatives. Representing Clackamas District again, he also became the first Speaker of the Oregon Territorial Legislature. In 1851, he returned to the legislature, serving in the upper chamber Council. The following year, he remained in the Council, but now elected as a Whig Party politician. In 1854, he was back in the House of Representatives, and in 1856 he served in one final session, now as a Democratic Party member.
In 1857, Lovejoy represented Clackamas County at the Oregon Constitutional Convention in Salem. The convention created the Oregon Constitution in preparation for the territory becoming a U.S. state. Lovejoy, still a Democrat, served as the chairperson of the boundaries committee and also served on the committee responsible for matters concerning the legislature.The convention finished on September 18, 1857, and submitted the finished document to a vote of the public on November 9. This vote approved the Constitution and on February 14, 1859, Oregon entered the Union as the 33rd state.
In his later years he was involved in a variety of business ventures in Oregon, including as a major shareholder in the Oregon Telegraph newspaper and vice-president of the Willamette Steam Navigation Company. Lovejoy died on September 10, 1882, at the age of 74 and was buried in the Masonic section at Lone Fir Cemetery in Portland. Lovejoy Street in Portland is named after him,[ and the character Reverend Timothy Lovejoy in The Simpsons is named after this street. The fountain at Lovejoy Fountain Park in downtown Portland is named in his honor." in Wikipédia.
* Francis Pettygrove
"In 1843, Pettygrove paid $50 for 320-acre (1.3 km2) of land owned by William Overton. The tract was along the Willamette River in a place known as The Clearing, 12 miles (19 km) downstream of Oregon City. Pettygrove and Asa Lovejoy, who owned adjoining land, decided to create a town on part of the site. Strongly encouraged by John Couch, a sea captain who considered The Clearing a good site for a river port, they hired Thomas A. Brown in 1845 to plat the town. Brown and his assistant, James Terwilliger, a blacksmith, laid the town out more compactly than usual on a grid of 16 square blocks, 200 feet (61 m) to a side. They allowed 80-foot (24 m) public rights-of-way for north–south streets, 60-foot (18 m) rights-of-way for east–west streets, and no alleys. The short blocks and small rights-of-way created more corner lots than usual and reduced the amount of stump removal needed to create streets. A proliferation of stumps on unbuilt lots prompted a derisive nickname for the place, Little Stump Town.
Lovejoy and Pettygrove, who could not agree on a name for the town, held a best-two-of-three coin toss won by Pettygrove, who named the town after Portland, Maine. Had Lovejoy won, he would have named it after Boston, Massachusetts. The two men cleared trees and debris from the site. Pettygrove built a small log store near the river, hired a married couple to run it, and commissioned the building of a wharf He also acquired a granary and boat landing at Champoeg, site of the Oregon Country's first provisional government.
In late 1845, Lovejoy sold his half-interest in the townsite (and his half-interest in a cattle herd he owned jointly with Pettygrove) to Benjamin Stark, who was the agent in charge of merchandise being shipped from Benson & Company, Pettygrove's supplier in New York, to Pettygrove's warehouse in Portland. Stark, the supercargo (cargo supervisor), arrived in Portland on Captain Nathaniel Crosby's Toulon. The three men then arranged to have Stark act as Pettygrove's supercargo on the Toulon, trading lumber, wheat, salted fish, and other goods between San Francisco, Honolulu, and Portland. Adding a second ship, the Mariposa, for a short time they controlled much of the trade in and out of Oregon.
The two men engaged in projects by land as well as sea. Among these were construction of a wagon road on the east side of the Willamette between Portland and Oregon City and a wagon track along an 11.5-mile (18.5 km) route, surveyed by Brown, between Portland and the farmlands of the Tualatin Plains to the west. To increase profits from cattle, Pettygrove built a slaughterhouse along the river and sold hides to Daniel H. Lownsdale, who had opened the first tannery on the Pacific Coast on a tract just west of the town site. Fiercely competitive, Pettygrove and Stark drove others, including Couch, who had his own store in Oregon City, out of business by monopolizing trade between Portland and Hawaii, charging high rates to import goods for others and raising the price of imported salt to gain control of the salmon trade.
In 1847, after the United States and the United Kingdom had negotiated a boundary treaty dividing the Oregon Country between them, thousands of pioneers entered the Oregon Territory, the part of the Oregon Country ceded to the U.S., most of them settling in the Willamette Valley. Meanwhile, after an apparent disagreement with Pettygrove, Stark returned temporarily to New England, and Pettygrove took control of the entire town site. By 1848, Pettygrove "was one of the wealthiest residents of the territory". In july 1849 at Portland, he buy ship Morning Star to French Jean-Baptiste Duchesne. During that year, the California Gold Rush attracted so many men from Oregon that it caused an Oregon labor shortage. Seeing little hope of further short-term growth in Portland, Pettygrove began selling his assets. While Stark was out of town, Pettygrove sold the entire 640-acre (260 ha) townsite, including Stark's share, to Daniel H. Lownsdale for $5,000 worth of leather. This netted Pettygrove a one-hundredfold profit for his original $50 investment " in Wikipédia.
I am writing you from France, Europe, because I research all informations about Jean-Baptiste Duchesne (1832-1908) who went to Portland and Oregon city in july 1849 with french ship "Morning Star" ( Le Havre, in Normandy) , by Columbia river. At Portland, ship was sold to Pettygrove. At Oregon city, store's Duchesne ( Société de l'Océanie, with others french, such as Menes ) was near Mac Loughlin's house. I known his name was also Douchine ( for Duchesne, in France). Please, could you help me ?